San Pantaleo Forest

Pantaleo covers 4,231 hectares in the countryside of the municipalities of Santadi and Nuxis; with neighboring state property Forests of Pula, Monti Nieddu, Gutturu Mannu and Tamara Tiriccu merged constitutes a complex of over 22,000 hectares and is the heart of the Sulcis Natural Park.
Framing geographical and administrative
Province: Carbonia-Iglesias
Common: Santadi, Nuxis
Area: 4231 hectares
Complex: Pantaleo

General description
Inserted in the area defined by the law framework L.R.n. 31/1989 is, well 1600, a protected fauna oasis where the operating year ban on hunting. An area which exhibits high natural character, that man, while through its use and use, is able to “hold” and comply in time. To remember (those who want the post may have additional and more detailed information) that, from 1872 to 1951, Pantaleo has become home to forest industry and chemistry.

Geology and morphology
The geology is complex and varied. In fact there are rocks of various origins and from all eras that form deep valleys and ridges that give rise to the incredibly beautiful landscapes. Present outcrops of Sardinian Paleozoic basement, marked by metamorphic phenomena and intrusion of Hercynian granites, arenaceous or calcareous sediments of various kinds and shapes. The forest is then largely on granite, intercalated with metamorphic rocks, which in western presents limestone dolomite area.

Band lauretum: rainfall modulated in relation to altitude and exposure of the slopes. About 1000 mm per year in the best areas; limited even if common snowfall; prolonged summer drought.

The Sulcis mountains are covered by dense vegetation, mainly woods of holm oaks, mixed with stain and / or with the cork. Present limited areas in fustaie well holm oak.
Difficult areas remain occupied by bush and low bush.
Pantaleo boasts the largest existing holm oak wood in the world.
Present rare and / or endemic. Among the trees are mentioned among others the rate, the holly with bearing tree, the Etna broom, the three-lobed maple, elder, the hackberry, etc. Lots of shrubs and herbaceous, the peony has a certain importance.

The habitat is ideal for many species, beginning with the Sardinian deer, fallow deer, wild cat, marten, fox, weasel. There are also many species of birds, mostly migratory. The birds of prey nesting site, in addition to the most common species, the golden eagle, goshawk, the sparrow hawk, peregrine falcon.

Projects and specificity
Among the buildings, some have been restored as the operational headquarters of the construction site and / or complex, others are going to be, harmonizing measures in synergy with other public and / or private persons
to be used for educational purposes and receptive tourism. They entered into several important initiatives such as Project Honey, the vineyard project, Cabriles the project, the design museum area.
Interventions interesting from the point of view of the trial and that will further enrich the existing one.

Pride Ente Forests and flagship of the site and its operators, the breeding of the Sardinian hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus W.) which are present on average 150/200 individuals. Excellent results were obtained for the knowledge of the species, exclusive of the island and very little known, both for technical capacity to breeding, but also in terms of production, which has been directed in the past to obtain preambientati heads for restocking in freedom, sold for a fee and released, with good success, now since 1994. Today we want to integrate with a school and tourist educational path.

Within the perimeter of the construction site it was created a path of about 3 km where it is possible, starting from the service center, enjoy nature and reach the rest area with a table for consumption of snacks and / or meals called IS FIGUERAS. The trail is easily passable, it is also suitable for children and seniors. A concentrate of innovations that make the reality of Pantaleo interesting, full of proposals and, more importantly, wonderfully integrated in nature.
The proximity to many archaeological, natural sites in the area (of Is Zuddas Caves, Montessu tombs) provides further elements that enrich the offers for visitors.

Pantaleo boasts the most impressive eucalyptus tree of Sardinia with more than 5.6 mt. in circumference and 27 meters high, planted in the late nineteenth century (figure 1). Do you admire in the square in front of the buildings of the complex. There are also the rarity as the myrtle plant, open to the inside of the enclosure of hares, with the trunk at the base of 50cm in diameter and a ‘height of about 4 meters. (Figure 2). But nature also offers other surprises, such as the presence of hybrid plants holm oak-cork

Forest of Pixinamanna 15 min

The Pixinamanna forest is the result of intense human action suffered from the second half of 1839, in particular the abolition of ademprivi. Assigned first to the Royal Society of Sardinian Railways and then to private, it was used to obtain firewood, charcoal and other forest products. In 1905 the fund returned to the state.
Framing geographical and administrative
Province: Cagliari
Common: Pula, Villa San Pietro, Sarroch
Area: 4796 hectares
Tel / Fax: 070 9241163
Complex: Gutturu Mannu

How to get there
Coming from Cagliari, take the SS. 195 to the junction of Is Molas; continuing to the right towards you exceed the Is Molas Sardinia Research Center and reach the barracks Pixinamanna.

General description
The State Forest of Pixinamanna is situated in the south west of the island, the mountain range that encloses the east the Gulf of Cagliari, from which is about 40 Km.
E ‘adjacent to the State Forests Cannoneris, Pantaleo and Monte Nieddu Mannu Gutturu.
In much of the State Forest Oasis is permanent protection and catching and is included in the proposed Regional Natural Park of Sulcis.
The Pixinamanna forest is the result of intense human action suffered from the second half of 1839, in particular the abolition of ademprivi. Assigned first to the Royal Society of Sardinian Railways and then to private, it was used to obtain firewood, charcoal and other forest products. In 1905 the fund returned to the state.

vegetation aspects
The site is characterized by a typically Mediterranean forest vegetation, with the presence of numerous endemic species. It is holm oak and cork, in addition to vegetation types in olive, juniper, oleander along the main rivers. It ‘also a low stain predominance of cysts, euphorbia and mastic trees, with the presence of gariga in Corsica broom and lavender.

faunal aspects
The area is home to many animal species. Among the avifauna are the Sardinian goshawks, buzzards, golden eagle, peregrine falcon, the Sardinian partridge, raven. Among the mammals you can find the Sardinian hare, wild rabbits, foxes, weasels, wild boar, Sardinian deer and fallow deer. The amphibians include the Sardinian Painted Frog, among reptiles water snake with the Sardinian subspecies cettii.

Forest of Is-Cannoneris 30 min

It is not uncommon in this forest see the golden eagle, peregrine falcon, kestrel, raven and woodcock. Bordering the forest complex of Monte Nieddu, in addition, there are several specimens of considerable size of the Etna broom.
Framing geographical and administrative
Province: Cagliari
Common: Pula, Domus de Maria, Villa S. Pietro
Area: 3827 hectares
Tel: 070 9270285 – Fax: 070 927025
Complex: Gutturu Mannu

General description
Known as the “State Forest of Pula”, included in a single body it has about 4500. Subsequently, as a result of purchases, the surface was extended up to a little less than 9500, which included the surface current Is Cannoneris complexes and Pixinamanna. The forest was part of the 200,000 hectares awarded by the state to the Railroad Company and this was returned to the State State in 1870. It was later sold to individuals and then began over-exploitation of forest topsoil. The indiscriminate cutting, grazing practiced with excessive loads and frequent fires compromised the natural balance of the forest. In 1903 he was finally expropriated and given to the State in managing State. From the early years of the century began the recovery of what grazing and fire had completely destroyed. The current forest management of the complex aims to restore and preserve the forests, protecting them from the destructive actions in the past threatened to permanently impair balance and irreparably mar its beauty.
The national forest of Cannoneris is included in full in the areas that relate to the proposed establishment of the Natural Park of Sulcis as’ Extended areal western Sardinian deer.
The northern portion of the forest, more than half of its surface area falls S.I.C. I.T.B. 001 105 – ‘Monte Arcosu Forest’ and for much of its surface in ‘Oasis permanent protection of wildlife’ Piscina Manna – Cannoneris’ as per decree No. 127 dated 06.15.79 n ° 1818 of 30/12/79.
The forest is a very popular tourist destination for its beautiful flora and fauna, and is considered one of the richest forests sulcitana area. It is not uncommon to spot the Sardinian deer in the wild and other animals. The natural beauty of the forest are also appreciated by visitors who come from the inner road to F.D. Pixinamanna. The presence of some nuraghi and sheer walls of Calamixi, make it particularly interesting to visit. The forest can be traveled in its main and secondary roads (some paths or mule) thanks to a system of well signposted hiking purposes.

climate issues
Inside the forest complex there is a weather station at an altitude of 716 m. s.l.m.
The average annual temperature is equal to 13.1 ° C. The average of the coldest month (February) is 1.7 ° C; the average of the warmest month (July) is 29.2 ° C. The annual temperature range is 8.2 ° C; the maximum and the absolute minimum, recorded in February and July respectively of 8.9 ° C and 17.2 ° C.
Rainfall follow a regime characterized by the highest winter (December to February) and autumn (October-November) for a total of 1172 mm of rain fall (average annual total).
According to the climatic classification of Pavari it can assume that the forest falls as a whole in the area phytoclimatic Lauretum – hot and cold sub, type with a summer drought. At the hot subarea belong those bands with altitude that varies from 200 to 600 m, while the cold subarea those with variable altitude from 600 to 1000m.

geopedologici aspects
The substrate is formed by intrusive rocks of the Paleozoic, mainly regarding granites (leucogranite and granodiorites) and in part also detects the presence of shale (micaschists) distributed on the south side and south-eastern part of the forest complex. The forest complex of Cannoneris is affected by uneven morphology in some areas and in other sweeter. They have more rugged terrain with stretches characterized by steep slopes, which runs Portas Santas and Porta Sapienza, Porta Matta Sola, Porta Calamixi, the northern part of the forest area (M. Mannu and Porta Is litteras) and the west (from Porta Is Spadas to punt’e he knows Stria).
Inside the forest it is crossed by numerous watersheds flowing streams to seasonal flow. The main water courses are: Mitza of Filisargiu, R. Isca de Crapitta, Canal de su Marigosu, Riu Truba knows and knows Para, Riu on Pizianti, Channel Medau Angiu.
Inside the forest, the odds vary between 225 m. s.l.m. to 979 m. s.l.m. on top of the upstream P.ta Sebera.

vegetation aspects
The forest is an example of well-established forest vegetation and evenly distributed, considering soprattut

Caves Is Zuddas 45 min


The caves of Is Zuddas are found in the southwest of Sardinia in the municipality of Santadi in the Sulcis area which is six kilometers.

The cavity is developed within the upstream Meana, a solid consisting of very ancient dolomite rocks dating back to 530 million years ago. The cave, still in operation, was discovered by cavers in 1971. The constant internal temperature is 16 degrees, with a humidity rate close to 100%.

Over a distance of 500 meters you can admire impressive concretions, stalactites and stalagmites, columns, tubular stalactites training, cannulas and especially rare aragonite needles, concentrated in a single room and calls by cavers “cave flowers”. These white crystal clumps develop in any direction (against the law of gravity) in spectacular thread-like formations, making only the cave.

In the initial part of the cavity can be observed the skeletal remains of the Sardinian Pika, a lagomorfe (Lagomorpha) from the size of a hare, present only in Sardinia and Corsica and became extinct about 400 years ago.